The Moon

The Moon is a celestial body that is at the core of renewed interests from the scientific and commercial space community. Perspectives in terms of space exploration and the development of a permanent/semi-permanent human presence on the moon has renewed interests from space nations and their agencies around the globe, including cooperation initiatives of which the Artemis Accords are the most recent manifestation. In addition, perspectives on the lunar economy also create a commercial enthusiasm that is building a momentum for the need of the regulation of potential commercial activities on the Moon.

This page lists current legal documents that cover activities involving the Moon and will regularly be updated with the latest treaties, laws and regulations that space nations enact for covering activities that involve our natural satellite.

PwC has also recently released an assessment of the lunar economy that you can consult at the following link : https://www.pwc.fr/en/industrie/secteur-spatial/pwc-space-team-public-reports-and-articles/lunar-market-assessment.html

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Find below the different legal documents that cover activities involving the Moon

Jan. 1, 2020
Artemis Accords
Space objects launch/return State strategic interest Space Resources Utilization
Ratified:
Australia
Brazil
Canada
Italy
Japan
Luxembourg
New Zealand
South Korea
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States of America
July 1, 1984
The Moon Agreement
State strategic interest Space Resources Utilization
Ratified:
Armenia
Australia
Austria
Belgium
Chile
Kazakhstan
Kuwait
Lebanon
Mexico
Morocco
Netherlands
Pakistan
Peru
Philippines
Saudi Arabia
Turkey
Uruguay
Venezuela
Signed but not ratified:
France
Guatemala
India
Romania
Sept. 1, 1972
The Liability Convention
Space objects launch/return Liability and insuranceState strategic interest
Ratified:
Algeria
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Australia
Austria
Bahrain
Belarus
Belgium
Benin
Bermuda
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
Bulgaria
Canada
Chile
China
Colombia
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czechia
Denmark
Dominican Republic
Ecuador
El Salvador
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern Territories
Gabon
Germany
Greece
Greenland
Guadeloupe
Heard Island and McDonald Islands
Hong Kong
Hungary
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Isle of Man
Israel
Italy
Japan
Jersey
Kazakhstan
Kenya
Kuwait
Laos
Lebanon
Libya
Liechtenstein
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Mali
Malta
Martinique
Mayotte
Mexico
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Netherlands
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Niger
Nigeria
Norfolk Island
North Korea
Norway
Pakistan
Panama
Papua New Guinea
Peru
Pitcairn
Poland
Puerto Rico
Qatar
Réunion
Romania
Russian Federation
Rwanda
Saint Barthélemy
Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha
Saint Martin (French part)
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saudi Arabia
Senegal
Serbia
Seychelles
Singapore
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Slovakia
Slovenia
South Africa
South Korea
Spain
Sri Lanka
Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Togo
Trinidad and Tobago
Tunisia
Turkey
Turks and Caicos Islands
Ukraine
United Arab Emirates
United Kingdom
United States Minor Outlying Islands
United States of America
Uruguay
Venezuela
Wallis and Futuna
Zambia
Signed but not ratified:
Burundi
Cambodia
Central African Republic
Costa Rica
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Egypt
Gambia
Ghana
Guatemala
Haiti
Honduras
Iceland
Jordan
Nepal
Nicaragua
Oman
Philippines
Sierra Leone
Tanzania
Dec. 1, 1968
The Rescue Agreement
Space objects launch/return State strategic interest
Ratified:
Algeria
Antigua and Barbuda
Argentina
Australia
Austria
Bahamas
Bahrain
Barbados
Belgium
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Botswana
Brazil
British Indian Ocean Territory
Bulgaria
Canada
Chile
China
Croatia
Cuba
Cyprus
Czechia
Denmark
Ecuador
Egypt
El Salvador
Fiji
Finland
France
French Guiana
French Polynesia
French Southern Territories
Gabon
Gambia
Georgia
Germany
Gibraltar
Greece
Greenland
Guadeloupe
Guernsey
Guinea-Bissau
Guyana
Hong Kong
Hungary
Iceland
India
Indonesia
Iran
Iraq
Ireland
Isle of Man
Israel
Italy
Japan
Jersey
Kazakhstan
Kuwait
Laos
Lebanon
Libya
Lithuania
Luxembourg
Madagascar
Maldives
Martinique
Mauritius
Mayotte
Mexico
Mongolia
Montenegro
Morocco
Nepal
Netherlands
New Caledonia
New Zealand
Niger
Nigeria
North Korea
Norway
Pakistan
Palau
Palestine
Papua New Guinea
Paraguay
Peru
Pitcairn
Poland
Portugal
Puerto Rico
Qatar
Réunion
Romania
Russian Federation
Saint Kitts and Nevis
Saint Martin (French part)
Saint Pierre and Miquelon
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
San Marino
Saudi Arabia
Serbia
Seychelles
Singapore
Sint Maarten (Dutch part)
Slovakia
Slovenia
South Africa
South Korea
Spain
Svalbard and Jan Mayen
Sweden
Switzerland
Syria
Thailand
Tonga
Tunisia
Turkey
Ukraine
United Kingdom
United States Minor Outlying Islands
United States of America
Uruguay
Virgin Islands (British)
Virgin Islands (U.S.)
Western Sahara
Zambia
Signed but not ratified:
Democratic Republic of the Congo
Dominican Republic
Ghana
Haiti
Jamaica
Jordan
Lesotho
Malaysia
Malta
Monaco
Myanmar
Nicaragua
Philippines
Rwanda
Senegal
Sierra Leone
Sierra Leone
Somalia
Venezuela
Vietnam
Yemen
...